Experimental field evidence shows milkweed contaminated with a common neonicotinoid decreases larval survival of monarch butterflies

Samantha Knight, Tyler Flockhart, Rachael Derbyshire, Mark Bosco & Ryan Norris
1. Neonicotinoid insecticides are the most widely used class of insecticides in the world and can have both lethal and sub-lethal effects on non-target organisms in agricultural areas. Monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) have experienced dramatic declines in recent decades and, given that a large proportion of milkweed on the landscape grows in agricultural areas, there is concern about the negative effects of neonicotinoids on this non-target insect. 2. In the field, we exposed common milkweed...
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