Data from: High flight costs, but low dive costs, in auks support the biomechanical hypothesis for flightlessness in penguins

Kyle H. Elliott, Robert E. Ricklefs, Anthony J. Gaston, Scott A. Hatch, John R. Speakman & Gail K. Davoren
Flight is a key adaptive trait. Despite its advantages, flight has been lost in several groups of birds, notably among seabirds, where flightlessness has evolved independently in at least five lineages. One hypothesis for the loss of flight among seabirds is that animals moving between different media face tradeoffs between maximizing function in one medium relative to the other. In particular, biomechanical models of energy costs during flying and diving suggest that a wing designed...
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