Network analysis reveals underlying syntactic features in a vocally learnt mammalian display, humpback whale song

Jennifer Allen, Ellen Garland, Rebecca Dunlop & Michael Noad
Vocal communication systems have a set of rules that govern the arrangement of acoustic signals, broadly defined as ‘syntax’. However, there is a limited understanding of potentially shared or analogous rules across vocal displays in different taxa. Recent work on songbirds has investigated syntax using network-based modelling. This technique quantifies features such as connectivity (adjacent signals in a sequence) and recurring patterns. Here, we apply network-based modelling to the complex, hierarchically structured songs of humpback...
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23 downloads reported since publication in 2019.

These counts follow the COUNTER Code of Practice, meaning that Internet robots and repeats within a certain time frame are excluded.
What does this mean?