Patterns of Testosterone in Male White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus): Seasonal and Lifetime Variation

Monet Gomes, Stephen Ditchkoff, Sarah Zohdy, William Gulsby & Chad Newbolt
Testosterone is strongly associated with the annual development of antlers in cervids, but. endocrine research on wild, freely breeding ungulates is often done without repeated capture of known-aged individuals. As a result, our knowledge on how testosterone fluctuates over the course of a lifetime and variation in lifetime patterns among individuals is limited. We investigated patterns of testosterone in a freely breeding population of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in Alabama, USA that breeds in January....
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