Data from: Pain and pessimism: dairy calves exhibit negative judgement bias following hot-iron disbudding

Heather W. Neave, Rolnei R. Daros, João H. C. Costa, Marina A. G. Von Keyserlingk & Daniel M. Weary
Pain is defined as an unpleasant sensory and emotional experience associated with actual or potential tissue damage, but emotional states are difficult to directly assess in animals. Researchers have assessed pain using behavioural and physiological measures, but these approaches are limited to understanding the arousal rather than valence of the emotional experience. Cognitive bias tasks show that depressed humans judge ambiguous events negatively and this technique has been applied to assess emotional states in animals....
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