Balancing risks of injury and disturbance to marine mammals when pile driving at offshore windfarms

Paul Thompson, Isla Graham, Barbara Cheney, Tim Barton, Adrian Farcas & Nathan Merchant
1. Offshore windfarms require construction procedures that minimise impacts on protected marine mammals. Uncertainty over the efficacy of existing guidelines for mitigating near-field injury when pile-driving recently resulted in the development of alternative measures, which integrated the routine deployment of acoustic deterrent devices (ADD) into engineering installation procedures without prior monitoring by Marine Mammal Observers. 2. We conducted research around the installation of jacket foundations at the UK’s first deep-water offshore windfarm to address data...
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3 downloads reported since publication in 2020.

These counts follow the COUNTER Code of Practice, meaning that Internet robots and repeats within a certain time frame are excluded.
What does this mean?