Heterospecific shorebird flocks increase safety and reduce intraspecific competition

Cesar Cestari, Cristina Gonçalves & Celine Melo
Shorebirds join cohesive flocks for safety. The joining of individuals of several species in large heterospecific flocks can optimise individual vigilance and foraging. However, a large number of conspecific individuals in flocks may deplete food resources and increase intraspecific competition. In the present study, we argue that Nearctic-Neotropical migratory shorebird species join large heterospecific flocks in a balanced number as a way of controlling intraspecific competition. We recorded monospecific and heterospecific flocks in urban beaches...
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