Reintroduced wolves and hunting limit the abundance of a subordinate apex predator in a multi-use landscape

L. Mark Elbroch, Jake Ferguson, Howard Quigley, Derek Craighead, Daniel Thompson & Heiko Wittmer
Top-down effects exhibited by apex predators are modulated by human impacts on community composition and species abundances. For these reasons, research supporting strong top-down effects of apex predators occurs almost entirely within protected areas rather than the much more common multi-use landscapes dominating modern ecosystems. Based on 16 years of monitoring, we developed an integrated population model to disentangle the concurrent contributions of a reintroduced apex predator, the gray wolf, human hunting, and prey abundances...
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34 downloads reported since publication in 2020.

These counts follow the COUNTER Code of Practice, meaning that Internet robots and repeats within a certain time frame are excluded.
What does this mean?