Extinction of North American Cuvieronius (Mammalia, Proboscidea, Gomphotheriidae) driven by dietary resource competition with sympatric mammoths and mastodons

Gregory Smith & Larisa DeSantis
The gomphotheres were a diverse and widespread group of proboscideans occupying Eurasia, North America, and South America throughout the Neogene. Their decline was temporally and spatially heterogeneous and the gomphotheres ultimately became extinct during the late Pleistocene; however, the genus Cuvieronius is rarely represented in late Pleistocene assemblages in North America. Two alternative hypotheses have been invoked to explain this phenomenon: (1) competitive exclusion by sympatric mammoths and mastodons, or (2) ecologic displacement due to...
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