Learning-induced switching costs in a parasitoid can maintain diversity of host aphid phenotypes although biocontrol is destabilised under abiotic stress

Katharine Preedy, Mark Chaplain, Daniel Leybourne, Glenn Marion & Alison Karley
1. Aphid populations frequently include phenotypes that are resistant to parasitism by hymenopterous parasitoid wasps, which is often attributed to the presence of ‘protective’ facultative endosymbionts residing in aphid tissues, particularly Hamiltonella defensa. In field conditions, under parasitoid pressure, the observed coexistence of aphids with and without protective symbionts cannot be explained by their difference in fitness alone. 2. Using the cereal aphid Rhopalosiphum padi as a model, we propose an alternative mechanism whereby parasitoids...
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These counts follow the COUNTER Code of Practice, meaning that Internet robots and repeats within a certain time frame are excluded.
What does this mean?