Genomic and phenotypic evolution of Escherichia coli in a novel citrate-only resource environment

Zachary Blount, Rohan Maddamsetti, Nkrumah Grant, Sumaya Ahmed, Tanush Jagdish, Brooke Sommerfeld, Alice Tillman, Jeremy Moore, Jessica Baxter, Joan L Slonczewski, Jeffrey E Barrick & Richard E Lenski
Evolutionary innovations allow populations to colonize new ecological niches. We previously reported that aerobic growth on citrate (Cit+) evolved in an Escherichia coli population during adaptation to a minimal glucose medium containing citrate (DM25). Cit+ variants can also grow in citrate-only medium (DM0), a novel environment for E. coli. To study adaptation to this niche, we founded two sets of Cit+ populations and evolved them for 2500 generations in DM0 or DM25. The evolved lineages...
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