Hawkmoths use wingstroke-to-wingstroke frequency modulation for aerial recovery to vortex ring perturbations

Jeff Gau, Ryan Gemilere, FM Subteam LDS-VIP, James Lynch, Nick Gravish & Simon Sponberg
Centimetre-scale fliers must contend with the high power requirements of flapping flight. Insects have elastic elements in their thoraxes which may reduce the inertial costs of their flapping wings. Matching wingbeat frequency to a mechanical resonance can be energetically favourable, but also poses control challenges. Many insects use frequency modulation on long timescales, but wingstroke-to-wingstroke modulation of wingbeat frequencies in a resonant spring-wing system is potentially costly because muscles must work against the elastic flight...
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3 downloads reported since publication in 2020.

These counts follow the COUNTER Code of Practice, meaning that Internet robots and repeats within a certain time frame are excluded.
What does this mean?