Interaction of field realistic doses of clothianidin and Varroa destructor parasitism on adult honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) health and neural gene expression, and antagonistic effects on differentially expressed genes

Nuria Morfin, Paul H. Goodwin & Ernesto Guzman-Novoa
While many studies have examined the effects of neonicotinoid insecticides and the parasitic mite Varroa destructor on honey bees (Apis mellifera), more information on the combined effects of such stressors on gene expression, including neural related genes, and their impact on biological pathways is needed. This study analyzed the effects of field realistic concentrations of the neonicotinoid clothianidin on adult bees infested and not infested with V. destructor over 21 consecutive days and then determined...
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