On the causes of geographically heterogeneous parallel evolution in sticklebacks

Bohao Fang, Petri Kemppainen, Paolo Momigliano, Xueyun Feng & Juha Merilä
The three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) is an important model system for the study of parallel evolution in the wild, having repeatedly colonized and adapted to freshwater from the sea throughout the northern hemisphere. Previous studies identified numerous genomic regions showing consistent genetic differentiation between freshwater and marine ecotypes but these had typically limited geographic sampling and mostly focused on the Eastern Pacific region. We analysed population genomic data from global samples of the three-spined stickleback...
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