Maternal effects and urbanization: Variation of yolk androgens and immunoglobulin in city and forest blackbirds

Jesko Partecke, Gergely Hegyi, Patrick S. Fitze, Julien Gasparini & Hubert Schwabl
Wildlife inhabiting urban environments exhibit drastic changes in morphology, physiology and behaviour. It has often been argued that these phenotypic responses could be the result of micro-evolutionary changes following the urbanization process. However, other mechanisms such as phenotypic plasticity, maternal effects and developmental plasticity could be involved as well. To address maternal effects as potential mechanisms, we compared maternal hormone and antibody concentrations in eggs between city and forest populations of European blackbirds (Turdus merula),...
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These counts follow the COUNTER Code of Practice, meaning that Internet robots and repeats within a certain time frame are excluded.
What does this mean?