Pollinators, pests and yield – multiple trade-offs from insecticide use in a mass-flowering crop

Jessica Knapp, Adam Bates, Ove Jonsson, Björn Klatt, Theresia Krausl, Ullrika Sahlin, Glenn Svensson &
Multiple trade-offs are likely to occur between pesticide use, pollinators and yield (via crop flowers) in pollinator-dependent, mass-flowering crops (MFCs), causing potential conflict between conservation and agronomic goals. To date, no studies have looked at both outcomes within the same system, meaning ‘win-win solutions’ for pollinators and yield can only be inferred. Here, we outline a new framework to explore these trade-offs, using red clover (Trifolium pratense) grown for seed production as an example. Specifically,...
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