Data from: Titmice are a better indicator of bird density in Northern European than in Western European forests

Mira H. Kajanus, Jukka T. Forsman, Maximilian G. R. Vollstädt, Vincent Devictor, Merja Elo, Aleksi Lehikoinen, Mikko Mönkkönen, James T. Thorson & Sami M. Kivelä
Population sizes of many birds are declining alarmingly and methods for estimating fluctuations in species’ abundances at a large spatial scale are needed. The possibility to derive indicators from the tendency of specific species to co-occur with others has been overlooked. Here we tested whether the abundance of resident titmice can act as a general ecological indicator of forest bird density in European forests. Titmice species are easily identifiable and have a wide distribution, which...
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