Evolution of chain migration in an aerial insectivorous bird, the common swift Apus apus

Susanne Akesson, Phil Atkinson, Ana Bermejo, Javier De La Puente, Mauro Ferri, Chris Hewson, Jan Holmgren, Erich Kaiser, Lyndon Kearsley, Raymond Klaassen, Heikki Kolunen, Gittan Matsson, Fausto Minelli, Gabriel Norevik, Hannu Pietiäinen, Navinder J Singh, Fernando Spina, Lukas Viktora & Anders Hedenstrom
Spectacular long-distance migration has evolved repeatedly in animals enabling exploration of resources separated in time and space. In birds, these patterns are largely driven by seasonality, cost of migration, and asymmetries in competition leading most often to leap-frog migration, where northern breeding populations winter furthest to the south. Here we show that the highly aerial common swift Apus apus, spending the non-breeding period on the wing, instead exhibits a rarely-found chain migration pattern, where the...
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3 downloads reported since publication in 2020.

These counts follow the COUNTER Code of Practice, meaning that Internet robots and repeats within a certain time frame are excluded.
What does this mean?