Adaptive evolution of flight in Morpho butterflies

Camille Le Roy, Dario Amadori, Samuel Charberet, Jaap Windt, Florian Muijres, Violaine Llaurens & Vincent Debat
The diversity of flying animals suggests that countless combinations of flight morphologies and behaviors have evolved with specific lifestyles, thereby exploiting diverse aerodynamic mechanisms. How morphology, flight behavior and aerodynamic properties together diversify with contrasting ecology remains to be elucidated. We studied the adaptive co-divergence in wing shape, flight behavior and aerodynamic efficiency among Morpho butterflies living in different forest strata, by combining high-speed videography in the field with morphometric analyses and aerodynamic modelling. By...
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