Sponge-like rigid structures in frictional granular packings

Kuang Liu, Jonathan E. Kollmer, Karen E. Daniels, J.M. Schwarz & Silke Henkes
We show how rigidity emerges in experiments of sheared two-dimensional frictional granular materials by using generalizations of two methods for identifying rigid structures. Both approaches, the force-based dynamical matrix and the topology-based rigidity percolation, agree with each other and identify similar rigid structures. As the system becomes jammed, at a critical contact number z = 2.4±0.1, a rigid backbone interspersed with floppy, particle-filled holes of a broad range of sizes emerges, creating a sponge-like morphology....
1 citation reported since publication in 2021.
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