Gregariousness, foraging effort, and social interactions in lactating bonobos and chimpanzees

Sean Lee, Gottfried Hohmann, Elizabeth Lonsdorf, Barbara Fruth & Carson Murray
Fission-fusion dynamics have evolved in a broad range of animal taxa and are thought to allow individuals to mitigate feeding competition. While this is the principal benefit of fission-fusion, few studies have evaluated its costs. We compared gregariousness, foraging budgets, and social budgets between lactating bonobos and chimpanzees from wild populations to evaluate such costs. Both species exhibit fission-fusion dynamics, but chimpanzees, particularly in East African populations, appear to experience higher feeding competition than bonobos....
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4 downloads reported since publication in 2020.

These counts follow the COUNTER Code of Practice, meaning that Internet robots and repeats within a certain time frame are excluded.
What does this mean?