Third and fourth trophic level composition shift in an aphid-parasitoid-hyperparasitoid food web limits aphid control in an intercropping system

Emma Jeavons, Joan Van Baaren, Anne Le Ralec, Christelle Buchard, Franck Duval, Stéphanie Llopis, Estelle Postic & Cécile Le Lann
1. Understanding how resource diversification affects ecological interactions, food web structure and ecosystem functioning is essential in both fundamental and applied ecology. While plant diversification strategies (either in- or around-field) are often proposed in agricultural landscapes as practices to improve the biological control of herbivores by natural enemies, results remain variable and unsure. 2. Here, we studied the effect of an in-field diversification practice (the intercropping of leguminous crops within cereal fields, an increasingly common...
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