Evolutionary modularity, integration and disparity in an accretionary skeleton: Analysis of venerid Bivalvia

Stewart Edie, Safia Khouja, Katie Collins, Nicholas Crouch & David Jablonski
Modular evolution, the relatively independent evolution of body parts, may promote high morphological disparity in a clade. Conversely, integrated evolution via the stronger covariation of parts may limit disparity. However, integration can also promote high disparity by channeling morphological evolution along lines of least resistance—a process that may be particularly important in the accumulation of disparity among organisms with accretionary growth, as in many invertebrate systems. We use a time-calibrated phylogenetic hypothesis and high-density, 3D...
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