Butterfly phenology in Mediterranean mountains using space-for-time substitution

Konstantina Zografou, Andrea Grill, Robert Wilson, John Halley, George Adamidis & Vassiliki Kati
Inferring species' responses to climate change in the absence of long-term time series data is a challenge, but can be achieved by substituting space for time. For example, thermal elevational gradients represent suitable proxies to study phenological responses to warming. We used butterfly data from two Mediterranean mountain areas to test whether mean dates of appearance of communities and individual species show a delay with increasing altitude, and an accompanying shortening in the duration of...
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