Hovering flight in hummingbird hawkmoths: Kinematics, wake dynamics and aerodynamic power

Kajsa Warfvinge, Christoffer Johansson & Anders Hedenström
Hovering insects are divided into two categories: ‘normal’ hoverers that move the wing symmetrically in a horizontal stroke plane, and those with an inclined stroke plane. Normal hoverers have been suggested to support their weight during both downstroke and upstroke, shedding vortex rings each half-stroke. Insects with an inclined stroke plane should, according to theory, produce flight forces only during downstroke, and only generate one set of vortices. The type of hovering is thus linked...
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