Experimental infection of bumble bees with honey bee associated viruses: no direct fitness costs but potential future threats to novel wild bee hosts

Anja Tehel, Tabea Streicher, Simon Tragust & Robert Paxton
Pathogen spill-over represents an important cause of biodiversity decline. For wild bee species such as bumble bees, many of which are in decline, correlational data point toward viral spill-over from naged honey bees as a potential cause. Yet impacts of honey bee viruses on wild bees are rarely evaluated. Here, in a series of highly controlled laboratory infection assays with well characterised viral inocula, we show that three viral types isolated from honey bees (Deformed...
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