Multiple-batch spawning as a bet-hedging strategy in highly stochastic environments: an exploratory analysis of Atlantic cod

Sara Hocevar, Jeffrey A. Hutchings & Anna Kuparinen
Stochastic environments shape life-history traits and can promote selection for risk-spreading strategies, such as bet-hedging. Although the strategy has often been hypothesised to exist for various species, empirical tests providing firm evidence have been rare, mainly due to the challenge in tracking fitness across generations. Here, we take a ‘proof of principle’ approach to explore whether the reproductive strategy of multiple-batch spawning constitutes a bet-hedging. We used Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) as the study species...
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