Body and wing morphology, flight metabolic rates, and wingbeat frequencies for 13 stingless bee species

Jon Harrison, Meghan Duell, David Roubik & C. Jaco Klok
Understanding the effect of body size on flight costs is critical for development of models of aerodynamics and animal energetics. Prior scaling studies that have shown that flight costs scale hypometrically have focused primarily on larger (> 100 mg) insects and birds, but most flying species are smaller. We studied the flight physiology of thirteen stingless bee species over a large range of body sizes (1-115 mg). Metabolic rate during hovering scaled hypermetrically (scaling slope...
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