Experimental shifts in exotic flowering phenology produce strong indirect effects on native plant reproductive success

Susan Waters, Janneke Hille Ris Lambers & Wei-Ling Cherry Chen
By causing phenological shifts that vary among species, climate change is altering time envelopes for species interactions, often with unexpected demographic consequences. Indirect interactions, like apparent competition and apparent facilitation, are especially likely to change in duration because they involve multiple interactors, increasing the likelihood of asynchronous phenological shifts by at least one interactor. Thus, we might observe ecological surprises if intermediaries of indirectly interacting species change their mediating behavior. We explored this possibility in...
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