Temporal isolation between sympatric host plants cascades across multiple trophic levels of host-associated insects

Linyi Zhang, Glen Hood, James Ott & Scott Egan
Phenological differences between host plants can promote temporal isolation among host-associated populations of insects with life cycles tightly coupled to plant phenology. Divergence in the timing of spring budbreak between two sympatric sister oak species has been shown to promote temporal isolation between host plants and their host-associated populations of a cynipid gall wasp. Here we examined the generality of this mechanism by testing the hypothesis of cascading temporal isolation for five additional gall-formers and...
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