Experimental manipulation of perceived predation risk and cortisol generates contrasting trait trajectories in plastic crucian carp

Jerker Vinterstare, Kaj Hulthén, P. Anders Nilsson, Helen Nilsson Sköld & Christer Brönmark
Most animals constitute potential prey and must respond appropriately to predator-mediated stress in order to survive. Numerous prey also adaptively tailor their response to the prevailing level of risk and stress imposed by their natural enemies, i.e. they adopt an inducible defence strategy. Predator exposure may activate the stress axis, and drive the expression of anti-predator traits that facilitate survival in a high-risk environment (the predation–stress hypothesis). Here, we quantified two key morphological anti-predator traits,...
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