Parasitoids of leaf herbivores enhance plant fitness and do not alter caterpillar-induced resistance against seed beetles

Carlos Bustos-Segura, Maximilien Cuny & Betty Benrey
1. Organisms of the third trophic level can indirectly interact with plants. However, whether parasitoids of herbivores have a positive effect on plant fitness has been controversial. In addition to possible effects on plant fitness, parasitoid-mitigated herbivory can modify plant physiological responses and thereby alter the plant-mediated indirect interactions between different herbivore species. These types of indirect multitrophic interactions remain largely unexplored. Thus, to understand the full effect of the third trophic level on plants,...
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