Data from: Genetic Monogamy despite frequent extra-pair Copulations in “strictly monogamous” wild Jackdaws

Lisa Gill, Jaap Van Schaik, Auguste Von Bayern & Manfred Gahr
“Monogamy” refers to different components of pair exclusiveness: the social pair, sexual partners, and the genetic outcome of sexual encounters. Avian monogamy is usually defined socially or genetically, while quantifications of sexual behavior remain scarce. Jackdaws (Corvus monedula) are considered a rare example of strict monogamy in songbirds, with lifelong pair bonds and little genetic evidence for extra-pair offspring. Yet jackdaw copulations, although accompanied by loud copulation calls, are rarely observed, since they occur visually...
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These counts follow the COUNTER Code of Practice, meaning that Internet robots and repeats within a certain time frame are excluded.
What does this mean?