Split sex ratio due to maternal condition

Alihan Katlav, Duong Nguyen, James Cook & Markus Riegler
In females of haplodiploid animals, female production requires fertilisation, whereas male production does not. Therefore, haplodiploid species can display extraordinary sex ratios. Constrained sex allocation occurs when a female cannot produce daughters. This can be due to virginity but may also occur after mating due to insemination failure, selfish genetic elements or physiological constraints. Here, we investigated the mechanism underlying constrained sex allocation in Pezothrips kellyanus. In this species some mated females produce highly female-biased...
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