Recreation and hunting differentially affect deer behaviour and sapling performance.

Bjorn Mols, Bjorn Mols, Evert Lambers, Joris Cromsigt, Dries Kuijper & Christian Smit
Humans are increasingly acknowledged as apex predators that shape landscapes of fear to which herbivores adapt their behaviour. Here, we investigate how humans modify deer space-use and their effects on vegetation at two spatial scales; zones with different types of human use (large-scale risk factor) and, nested within that, trails (fine-scale risk factor). In zones with three contrasting types of human activities: (1) no recreation, no hunting, (2) with recreation, no hunting, and (3) with...
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