Shock or jump: deimatic behaviour is repeatable and polymorphic in a yellow-bellied toad

Andrea Chiocchio, Giuseppe Martino, Roberta Bisconti, Claudio Carere & Daniele Canestrelli
Inter-individual variation in antipredatory strategies has long attracted curiosity among scientists. Deimatisms is a complex and time-structured antipredatory strategy consisting in prey suddenly unleashing unexpected defences to frighten predators and stop their attack. Being deimatism traditionally considered as a stereotyped antipredatory response, the inter-individual variation in phenotypic traits related to deimatic displays is almost unexplored. In this study, we employed common garden experiments on 71 yellow-bellied toad Bombina pachypus to investigate the extent and pattern...
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