Loss of an apex predator in the wild induces physiological changes in prey

Neil Hammerschlag, Chris Fallows, Michael Meyer, Simon Seakamela, Samantha Orndorff, Stephen Kirkman, Deon Kotze & Scott Creel
Predators can impact prey via predation or risk effects, which can initiate trophic cascades. Given widespread population declines of apex predators, understanding and predicting the associated ecological consequences is a priority. When predation risk is relatively unpredictable or uncontrollable by prey, the loss of predators is hypothesized to release prey from stress; however, there are few tests of this hypothesis in the wild. A well-studied predator-prey system between white sharks (Carcharodon carcharias) and Cape fur...
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