Plant-phenotypic changes induced by parasitoid ichnoviruses enhance the performance of both unparasitized and parasitized caterpillars

Antonino Cusumano, Serge Urbach, Fabrice Legeai, Marc Ravallec, Marcel Dicke, Erik Poelman & Anne-Nathalie Volkoff
There is increasing awareness that interactions between plants and insects can be mediated by microbial symbionts. Nonetheless, evidence showing that symbionts associated with organisms beyond the second trophic level affect plant-insect interactions are restricted to a few cases belonging to parasitoid-associated bracoviruses. Insect parasitoids harbor a wide array of symbionts which, like bracoviruses, can be injected into their herbivorous hosts to manipulate their physiology and behavior. Yet, the function of these symbionts in plant-based trophic...
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