Hybridization selects for prime-numbered life cycles in Magicicada: an individual-based simulation model of a structured periodical cicada population

Jaakko Toivonen & Lutz Fromhage
We investigate competition between separate periodical cicada populations each possessing different life cycle lengths. We build an individual-based model to simulate the cicada life cycle and allow random migrations to occur between patches inhabited by the different populations. We show that if hybridization between different cycle lengths produces offspring that have an intermediate life-cycle length, then predation acts disproportionately to select against the hybrid offspring. This happens because they emerge in low densities without the...
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