Predation and parasitism on herbivorous insects change in opposite directions in a latitudinal gradient crossing a boreal forest zone

Elena Zvereva, Vitali Zverev & Mikhail Kozlov
1. The Latitudinal Biotic Interaction Hypothesis (LBIH) predicts that the strength of various biotic interactions decreases from low to high latitudes. Inconsistency between studies testing this hypothesis may result from variations among different types of interactions and among study systems. Therefore, exploration of multiple interactions within one system would help to disentangle latitudinal patterns across individual interactions and to evaluate latitudinal changes in the overall impact of enemies on prey. 2. We tested the prediction...
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