Filter feeding, deviations from bilateral symmetry, developmental noise and heterochrony of hemichordate and cephalochordate gills

Charles Larouche-Bilodeau, Xavier Guilbeault Mayer & Christopher Cameron
We measured gill slit fluctuating asymmetry (FA), a measure of developmental noise, in adults of three invertebrate deuterostomes with different feeding modes: the cephalochordate Branchiostoma floridae (an obligate filter feeder), and the enteropneusts Protoglossus graveolens (a facultative filter feeder / deposit feeder) and Saccoglossus bromophenolosus (a deposit feeder). FA was substantially and significantly low in B. floridae and P. graveolens, and high in S. bromophenolosus. Our results suggest that the gills of species that have...
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