Age-related breeding success in little penguins: A result of selection and ontogenetic changes in foraging and phenology

Claire Saraux & André Chiaradia
Reproductive performance typically improves with age, reaching a plateau at middle age and subsequently declining in older age classes (senescing individuals). Three potential non-exclusive mechanisms can explain the improvement in reproductive performance with age: (1) selection (poor quality individuals are removed from the population with increasing age), (2) constraint (individual efficiency increases through experience) and (3) restraint (reproductive investment increases with age as the residual reproductive value decreases). While all three mechanisms received strong empirical...
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