Comparative phylogenetics of Papilio butterfly wing shape and size demonstrates independent hindwing and forewing evolution

Hannah Owens, Delano Lewis, Fabien Condamine, Akito Kawahara & Robert Guralnick
The complex forces that shape butterfly wings have long been a subject of experimental and comparative research. Butterflies use their wings for flight, camouflage, mate recognition, warning and mimicry. However, general patterns and correlations among wing shape and size evolution are still poorly understood. We collected geometric morphometric measurements from over 1400 digitized museum specimens of Papilio swallowtails and combined them with phylogenetic data to test two hypotheses: 1) forewing shape and size evolve independently...
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35 downloads reported since publication in 2019.

These counts follow the COUNTER Code of Practice, meaning that Internet robots and repeats within a certain time frame are excluded.
What does this mean?