Adding the third dimension to studies of parallel evolution of morphology and function: an exploration based on parapatric lake-stream stickleback

Grant Haines, Yoel Stuart, Dieta Hanson, Tania Tasneem, Daniel Bolnick, Hans Larsson & Andrew Hendry
Recent methodological advances have led to a rapid expansion of evolutionary studies employing three-dimensional landmark-based geometric morphometrics (GM). GM methods generally enable researchers to capture and compare complex shape phenotypes, and to quantify their relationship to environmental gradients. However, some recent studies have shown that the common, inexpensive, and relatively rapid two-dimensional GM methods can distort important information and produce misleading results because they cannot capture variation in the depth (Z) dimension. We use micro-CT...
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