Co-evolution of cleaning and feeding morphology in the western Atlantic and eastern Pacific gobies

Jonathan Huie, Christine Thacker & Luke Tornabene
Cleaning symbioses are mutualistic relationships where cleaners remove and consume ectoparasites from their clients. Cleaning behavior is rare in fishes and is a highly specialized feeding strategy only observed in around 200 species. Cleaner fishes vary in their degree of specialization, ranging from species that clean as juveniles or facultatively as adults, to nearly obligate or dedicated cleaners. Here we investigate whether these different levels of trophic specialization correspond with similar changes in feeding morphology....
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