Within-colony transmission of Microsporidian and Trypanosomatid parasites in honey bee and bumble bee colonies

Mario Pinilla-Gallego, Emma Williams, Abby Davis, Jacquelyn Fitzgerald, Scott McArt & Rebecca Irwin
Parasites are commonly cited as one of the causes of population declines for both managed and wild bees. Epidemiological models sometimes assume that increasing the proportion of infected individuals in a group should increase transmission. However, social insects exhibit behaviors and traits which can dampen the link between pathogen pressure and disease spread. Understanding patterns of parasite transmission within colonies of social bees has important implications for how to control diseases within those colonies, and...
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