A Double-Edged Sword: Parental care increases risk of offspring infection by a maternally-vectored parasite

Rebecca Jean Millena & Jay Rosenheim
Parental care can protect offspring from predators but can also create opportunities for parents to vector parasites to their offspring. We hypothesized that the risk of infection by maternally-vectored parasites would increase with the frequency of mother-offspring contact. Ammophila spp. wasps (Hymenoptera: Sphecidae) build nests in which they rear single offspring. Ammophila species exhibit varied offspring provisioning behaviors: some species enter the nest once to provision a single, large caterpillar, whereas others enter the nest...
1 citation reported since publication in 2022.
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