Exposure, hazard and vulnerability all contribute to Schistosoma haematobium re-infection in northern Senegal

Andrea Lund, Susanne Sokolow, Isabel Jones, Chelsea Wood, Sofia Ali, Andrew Chamberlin, Alioune Sy, M. Moustapha Sam, Nicolas Jouanard, Anne-Marie Schacht, Simon Senghor, Assane Fall, Raphael Ndione, Gilles Riveau, Giulio De Leo & David Lopez-Carr
The risk of infectious diseases, including snail-borne schistosomiasis, is determined by three interrelated components: exposure, hazard and vulnerability. For schistosomiasis, exposure occurs through behaviors involving water contact, but not without the environmental hazard of snails and parasites in the water. Socio-economic vulnerability makes it difficult to reduce exposure in the presence of hazard, because it increases reliance on hazardous activities and environments. We aimed to quantify the contributions of exposure, hazard and vulnerability to schistosome...
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