Data from: Penalized likelihood methods improve parameter estimates in occupancy models

Rebecca A. Hutchinson, Jonathon J. Valente, Sarah C. Emerson, Matthew G. Betts & Thomas G. Dietterich
1. Occupancy models are employed in species distribution modelling to account for imperfect detection during field surveys. While this approach is popular in the literature, problems can occur when estimating the model parameters. In particular, the maximum likelihood estimates can exhibit bias and large variance for data sets with small sample sizes, which can result in estimated occupancy probabilities near 0 and 1 (‘boundary estimates’). 2. In this paper, we explore strategies for estimating parameters...
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