Open forest successional stages and landscape heterogeneity promote wild bee diversity in temperate forests

Tristan Eckerter, Veronika Braunisch, Jörn Buse & Alexandra-Maria Klein
Recent studies have emphasized forests as crucial habitat for wild bees. In Europe, most forests are managed following the principles of close‐to‐nature silviculture, which combine timber production and nature conservation. However, open late and early successional stages within these forests are largely missing, which could be important for wild bees. This highlights that close‐to‐nature silviculture alone might not be sufficient to conserve bees within temperate forests. Open structures such as canopy gaps and road verges...
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